# Polynomial

## Project Euler 101: Investigate the optimum polynomial function to model the first k terms of a given sequence.

Now that we are on the other side of Problem 100, it starts to become exciting. Problem 101 is the first problem we should tackle in Project Euler. A problem which is about polynomials and therefore have links to the currently ongoing problems in UVa Online jugde.  The problem reads

If we are presented with the first k terms of a sequence it is impossible to say with certainty the value of the next term, as there are infinitely many polynomial functions that can model the sequence.

As an example, let us consider the sequence of cube numbers. This is defined by the generating function,
un = n3: 1, 8, 27, 64, 125, 216, …

Suppose we were only given the first two terms of this sequence. Working on the principle that “simple is best” we should assume a linear relationship and predict the next term to be 15 (common difference 7). Even if we were presented with the first three terms, by the same principle of simplicity, a quadratic relationship should be assumed.

We shall define OP(kn) to be the nth term of the optimum polynomial generating function for the first k terms of a sequence. It should be clear that OP(kn) will accurately generate the terms of the sequence for n ≤ k, and potentially the first incorrect term(FIT) will be OP(kk+1); in which case we shall call it a bad OP (BOP).

As a basis, if we were only given the first term of sequence, it would be most sensible to assume constancy; that is, for n ≥ 2, OP(1, n) = u1.

Hence we obtain the following OPs for the cubic sequence:

 OP(1, n) = 1 1, 1, 1, 1, … OP(2, n) = 7n-6 1, 8, 15, … OP(3, n) = 6n2-11n+6 1, 8, 27, 58, … OP(4, n) = n3 1, 8, 27, 64, 125, …

Clearly no BOPs exist for k ≥ 4.

By considering the sum of FITs generated by the BOPs (indicated in red above), we obtain 1 + 15 + 58 = 74.

Consider the following tenth degree polynomial generating function:

un = 1 – n + n2 – n3 + n4 – n5 + n6 – n7 + n8 – n9 + n10

Find the sum of FITs for the BOPs.

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## UVa 10268: 498-bis

Problem 10268 at the UVa Online Judge, 498′, asks us to evaluate the derivative of a polynomial. It is, like the name suggests, a version of problem 498, which we’ve already covered here. We solved problem 498 with code reuse in mind. We created a Polynomial class which we can extend to solve this problem. Continue reading →

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## UVa 498: Polly the Polynomial

In Problem 498 at UVa Online Judge, Polly the Polynomial, we are asked to evaluate a polynomial. The problem is easier that usual, but its designed to help engineers remember the basic algebra skills, which they supposedly forget as they progress further in their studies. Continue reading →

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