Inverse functions

Project Euler 46: What is the smallest odd composite that cannot be written as the sum of a prime and twice a square?

Problem 46 of Project Euler reads

It was proposed by Christian Goldbach that every odd composite number can be written as the sum of a prime and twice a square.

9 = 7 + 2×12
15 = 7 + 2×22
21 = 3 + 2×32
25 = 7 + 2×32
27 = 19 + 2×22
33 = 31 + 2×12

It turns out that the conjecture was false.

What is the smallest odd composite that cannot be written as the sum of a prime and twice a square?

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Posted by Kristian in Project Euler, 19 comments

Project Euler 44: Find the smallest pair of pentagonal numbers whose sum and difference is pentagonal.

In Problem 42 we dealt with triangular problems, in Problem 44 of Project Euler we deal with pentagonal number, I can only wonder if we have to deal with septagonal numbers in Problem 46. Anyway the problem reads

Pentagonal numbers are generated by the formula, Pn=n(3n-1)/2. The first ten pentagonal numbers are:

1, 5, 12, 22, 35, 51, 70, 92, 117, 145, …

It can be seen that P4 + P7 = 22 + 70 = 92 = P8. However, their difference, 70 – 22 = 48, is not pentagonal.

Find the pair of pentagonal numbers, Pj and Pk, for which their sum and difference is pentagonal and D = |Pk – Pj| is minimised; what is the value of D?

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Posted by Kristian in Project Euler, 43 comments